Linguistic Description and

Chapter 1 semantics in Linguistics

How speaker intention and hearer interpretation affect meaning OR the study of utterance meaning OR how the meanings of the things we say are shaped by context.

1. Interrogatives (questions)
2. Imperatives (commands)
3. Declaratives (statements)

Utterance intended to convey communicative force.

Utterance whose meaning is the sum of its parts, the literal meaning. Eg: "Has it started to rain?"

Utterance whose meaning depends on context rather than on literal meaning. Eg: "Have you cleaned your room yet?"; depending on the context, this may actually be a threat.

Theory dealing with the construction of meaning in conversation by direct and indirect speech acts; concerned with the communicative intentions of speakers and how they achieve their communicative goals.

Austin's 3 basic kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed by an utterance

1. Locutionary - an utterance with a particular sense and reference (closest to meaning in the traditional sense, the sum of its parts).
2. Illocutionary - the act (defined by social convention) that isperformed by making the utterance: a statement, offer, promise, bet etc.
3. Perlocutionary -the (not necessarily intentional) effects on the audience brought about by the utterance, intended or unintended.

Grice's maxims of conversation

Late 20th C rules of conversation that describe the shared rules speakers use in interactions; they include:
Maxim of quantity
Maxim of quality
Maxm of relevance
Maxim of manner

Grice's cooperative principle

Assumption that in conversation speakers will...

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