File sharing semantics in distributed systems
When two or more users share the same file, it is necessary to define the semantics of reading and writing precisely to avoid problems. In single-processor systems that permit processes to share files, such as UNIX, the semantics normally state that when a READ operation follows a WRITE operation, the READ returns the value just written, as shown in Fig. 5-4(a). Similarly, when two writes happen in quick succession, followed by a READ, the value read is the value stored by the last write. In effect, the system enforces an absolute time ordering on all operations and always returns the most recent value. We will refer to this model as UNIX semantics. This model is easy to understand and straightforward to implement.
Fig. 5-4. (a) On a single processor, when a READ follows a WRITE, the value returned by the read is the value just written. (b) In a distributed system with caching, obsolete values may be returned.
In a distributed system, UNIX semantics can be achieved easily as long as there is only one file server and clients do not cache files. All reads and WRITES go directly to the file server, which processes them strictly sequentially. This approach gives UNIX semantics (except for the minor problem that network delays may cause a READ that occurred a microsecond after a write to arrive at the server first and thus get the old value).
In practice, however, the performance of a distributed system in which all file requests must go to a single server is frequently poor. This problem is often solved by allowing clients to maintain local copies of heavily used files in their private caches. Although we will discuss the details of file caching below, for the moment it is sufficient to point out that if a client locally modifies a cached file and shortly thereafter another client reads the file from the server, the second client will get an obsolete file, as illustrated in Fig. 5-4(b).christmas number 1 2022 ual london college of communication the scotch malt whisky society live soccer results worldwide cast of a boy called christmas society house the alzheimers society casbury worldwide hide scrambled communication outdoor swing chair what is cadbury worldwide hide how do i start my own business international travel from uk outdoor lanterns uk outdoor bars shoreditch successful coworking spaces why communication is important in a team channels of communication u t i worldwide hcc international christmas eve worldwide football results outdoor sauna uk how to setup facebook business manager outdoor fitness classes near me stylish work shoes outdoor ceramic plant pots networking coworking space communication accommodation theory outdoor cctv for home
You might also like
Kubuntu 10.04 Desktop Edition